Maintal Genocide Awareness Month 2021 The month of April is recognized globally as Genocide Awareness Month, a time for commemoration and recognition of " acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group...."

What is Genocide?

Maxalt side effects By Erica Nadelhaft, HHRC Education Coordinator

Armenian Genocide

Armenians Killed

The Armenian Genocide: an Introduction

Taldykorgan The story of the Armenian Genocide and its legacies raises important questions about our own responsibilities as individuals, and as members of groups and nations to those beyond our borders. It also raises important questions about the role of law and education in bringing understanding about past genocides to citizens today. Find out more:

The Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide was the physical destruction of the Christian Armenian population living in the Ottoman Empire during the period between the spring of 1915 and the fall of 1916. At the start of 1915, there were close to 1.5 million Armenians in the Empire. By the end of 1916, at least 664,000, and possibly as many as 1.2 million Armenians were dead. The Armenians were a population that had long been persecuted and politically and socially marginalized by Ottoman and Turkish society. During World War I, the Turkish government targeted the Armenians for destruction, calling them enemies and opponents of Turkish nationalism. 

The first deportation of some 240 Armenians by the Ottoman authorities took place on April 24, 1915. Over the next year and a half, the Ottomans murdered thousands of Armenian men of fighting age as well as women and children in mass executions. Hundreds of thousands more died during deportations east due to starvation, disease, dehydration, and exhaustion. While on forced marches through Ottoman territory, Armenian civilians were frequently attacked by local officials, civilians, and criminal gangs. Women and girls were raped and tortured. Tens of thousands of Armenian children were forcibly taken from their parents and converted to Islam. By the end of 1916, the three thousand year old Armenian population of Turkey was largely destroyed.

The Holocaust

Jews Killed

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: WWII and the Holocaust

The Holocaust was the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, between 1933 and 1945. Jews were the primary victims - six million were murdered. Roma (Gypsies), physically and mentally disabled people and Poles were also targeted for destruction or decimation for racial, ethnic, or national reasons. Millions more, including homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Soviet prisoners of war, and political dissidents also suffered grievous oppression and death under Nazi tyranny.

Cambodian Genocide

Cambodians Killed

Overview of Genocide in Cambodia

From 1975 until 1979, the genocidal Democratic Kampuchea regime ruled in Cambodia. The Khmer Rouge, a radical group of communist inspired rebels headed by Pol Pot, came to power after a bloody civil war in which some 600,000 people died. The regime set out immediately to transform Cambodia into an agrarian, communist state. Beginning in the spring of 1975, the nation’s cities were evacuated, hospitals emptied, schools closed, factories deserted, money and wages abolished, monasteries emptied and libraries scattered. Freedom of the press, freedom of movement, freedom of worship, organization, association and discussion all completely disappeared for nearly four years. Everyday family life disappeared as well. During these four years, Democratic Kampuchea (the name given to the country by the Khmer Rouge) was a prison camp state, and the eight million Cambodians were the prisoners working in virtually solitary confinement. One and a half million of these Cambodians were worked, starved, tortured executed, and beaten to death.

Overview of Genocide in Cambodia

This is a two-minute summary of the genocide created by BUIOH for the Survivors of Genocide Oral History Project.

Bosnian Genocide

Bosnians Killed

USHMM: Background of the Bosnian Genocide

On April 5, 1992, the government of Bosnia declared its independence from Yugoslavia. The creation of an independent Bosnian nation that would have a Bosniak majority was opposed by Bosnian Serbs, who launched a military campaign to secure coveted territory and “cleanse” Bosnia of its Muslim civilian population. The Serbs targeted Bosniak and Croatian civilians in areas under their control, in what has become known as “ethnic cleansing.”

During the subsequent civil war that lasted from 1992 to 1995, an estimated 100,000 people were killed, 80 percent of whom were Bosniaks. In July 1995, Bosnian Serb forces killed as many as 8,000 Bosniak men and boys from the town of Srebrenica. It was the largest massacre in Europe since the Holocaust.

BBC: Timeline of the Bosnian Genocide

The Bosnian Genocide occurred from 1992-1995. Click the link below to see a timeline of the events that shaped this dark period in southeastern Europe.

Rwandan Genocide

Tutsis Killed

UN Human Rights Council: Genocide in Rwanda

In 1994, Rwanda’s population of seven million was composed of three ethnic groups: Hutu (approximately 85%), Tutsi (14%) and Twa (1%). In the early 1990s, Hutu extremists within Rwanda’s political elite blamed the entire Tutsi minority population for the country’s increasing social, economic, and political pressures. Tutsi civilians were also accused of supporting a Tutsi-dominated rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). Through the use of propaganda and constant political maneuvering, Habyarimana, who was the president at the time, and his group increased divisions between Hutu and Tutsi by the end of 1992. The Hutu remembered past years of oppressive Tutsi rule, and many of them not only resented but also feared the minority.

USHMM: Background of the Rwandan Genocide

In 1994, Rwanda’s population of 7 million was composed of three ethnic groups: Hutu (approximately 85 percent), Tutsi (14 percent) and Twa (1 percent). From April–July 1994, between 500,000 and one million Tutsi and moderate Hutus were slaughtered when a Hutu extremist-led government launched a plan to murder the country’s entire Tutsi minority and any others who opposed the government's policies.

Darfur Genocide

Darfuris Killed

Jewish World Watch: Darfur Genocide

The first genocide of the 21st century, the Darfur genocide has caused the deaths of approximately 400,000 Darfuris, and displaced more than three million people.

While the conflict has faded from the spotlight, ongoing violence continues to displace, injure, and kill people today. The security situation continues to deteriorate, with millions displaced, hundreds of thousands living as refuges, and millions in need of food and other vital aid. The discovery of gold in Darfur has further fueled violence and displacement throughout the region, and conflict dynamics have since morphed from the initial outbreak of violence in 2003.

PBS: Genocide Again: Darfur

Eyewitnesses and experts on the causes of genocide and the ongoing conflict in Darfur; co-produced with the UM Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies